Basic Parts of a Computer System: Guide on Computer PC Hardware

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Basic Parts of a Computer System: Guide on Computer PC Hardware. Learn to build, repair, upgrade and maintain your PC.

Here are the basic parts of a computer system, in case you decide to set up your own desktop computer for gaming or editing work.

Assembling a computer is much easy if you you have a basic understanding of the various parts that are used within.

Basic Parts of a Computer System

Here are the physical components (hardware) inside a computer.


This is the main electronic circuit board, known as motherboard. All the computer components connect to this board. The CPU is located on the motherboard.

Popular motherboard brands include Intel, Asus, Gigabyte, MSI, ECS.

computer motherboard

Central processing unit

Most important part of the computer, as it does most of the data processing. It consists of one or more processing chips.

Popular processor manufacturers include Intel, AMD, IBM, Qualcomm, NVIDIA, Samsung.

computer processor

Random Access Memory (RAM)

It’s called a “memory” because this is the place where the computer stores and retrieves data, as it operates. More computer memory means the computer will be able to run faster and handle more software programs.

This is volatile memory; meaning when the computer is switched off everything stored on this temporary storage device is lost.

computer memory / RAM

Power supply

A computer runs on electricity, so a power supply unit (PSU) is also one of the computer parts; it regulates the electricity needed by the other components to operate.

computer power supply

Hard-disc drive

RAM is quick but volatile. Hard drive is the place where you store your data and information so that you can retrieve it later. Hard drives are comparatively slower than RAM, when it comes to storing and retrieving data.

computer power supply

Various Other Drives

This includes drives to read and write CDs, DVDs. In addition to the hard-disc you can utilize these for storing data, and these are quite portable as well.

On earlier computers, you also had floppy drives, but then those are no longer available as that technology is obsolete.

Input devices

The more common ones being the keyboard and the mouse.

computer keyboard

computer mouse

Computer Monitor

This is the LCD screen with which you interact with the computer. You can even connect your computer to bigger screens, television, or projectors for a wider audience.

computer monitor

Graphics Card

The Graphics Card determines the quality of the overall picture/videos.

Expansion cards

Want to increase the functionality of your computer? Add the appropriate expansion card to the motherboard. For example, you can add graphic cards, network cards and sound cards.

Additional ports

These are receptors that help to exchange information (additional means besides CDs, DVDs) between computer and other devices. Firewire and USB ports are the more popular ones.

So these are the basic parts of a Computer System.

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